Level 3 Efficacy- Probably Efficacious
EEG biofeedback appears to improve memory in brain injured people (Thornton, 2000). It also improves attention and accuracy on performance tasks and decreases errors in problem solving tasks (Tinius & Tinius, 2000). 88% of mild head injured patients showed more than 50% improvement in Quantitative EEG coherence scores post training (Walker, Norman, & Weber, 2002) .
Case Histories & Testimonials
Technical Papers & Abstracts
A controlled study of EEG neurofeedback and physical therapy with pediatric stroke, age seven months to age fifteen, occurring prior to birth. (1994). Society for the Study of Neuronal Regulation Presentation, Las Vegas NV.
Ayers, M. (1993). A controlled study of EEG neurofeedback training and clinical psychotherapy for right hemispheric closed head injury. Biofeedback and Self-Regulation, 18(3), September 1993 AAPB Conference Presentation.
Ayers, M. (1983). Electroencephalographic feedback and head trauma. Head and Neck Trauma: The Latest Information and Perspectives on Patients with a Less Than Optimal Recovery. U.C.L.A. Neuropsychiatric Institute.
Byers, A. (1995). Neurofeedback therapy recovery from some cognitive deficits secondary to mild head injury after neurofeedback therapy: A single case controlled study. Society for the Study of Neuronal Regulation, Scottsdale, AZ.
Byers, Alvah P. (1995). Neurofeedback therapy for a mild head injury. Journal of Neurotherapy, 1(1), 22-37.
Duffy, F. H. (Jan. 2000). The state of EEG biofeedback therapy (EEG operant conditioning) in 2000: an editor's opinion. Clinical Electroencephalograpy, 31(1), V-VII.
Guercio, J. M., Ferguson, K. E., & McMorrow, M. J. (Dec. 2001). . Brain Injury, 15 (12), 1073-1082. Retrieved from Medline Database.
Herbert S., & Gross, M. S. (1995). . Retrieved from ISNR Database.
Hoffman, D., & Stockdale, S. (1995). Neurofeedback in the treatment of mild closed head injury. Presentation at 1995 Society for the Study of Neuronal Regulation, Scottsdale, AZ.
Howard, M. E. (1993). Mild brain injury: causes, damages, diagnosis, and treatment. In Damages in Tort Actions. Matthew Bender and Sons.
Ichise, M., Chung, D., Wang, P., Wortzman, G., Gray, B., & Franks, W. (1994). Journal of Nuclear Medicine, 35(2), 217-225.
Johnstone, J., & Thatcher, R. (1991). Journal of Insurance Medicine, 23(4), 228232.
McAllister, T (1994). Mild traumatic brain injury and the post concussive syndrome. Inj. Silver, S. Yudofsky, R. Hales (Eds.), The Neuropsychiatry of Traumatic Brain Injury, (pp 357-392), Washington D.C.: American Psychiatric Press.
Murdoch, B. E., Pitt, G., Theodoros, D. G., &Ward, E. C., (1999). Pediatric Rehabilitation, 3(1), 5-20. Retrieved from Medline Database.
Niemann, H., Ruff, R., & Baser, C. (1990). Journal of Consulting Clinical Psychology, 58, 811-817.
Nuwer, M. R., Hovda, D. A., Schrader, L. M., & Vespa, P. M. (Sept. 2005). Clinical Neurophysiology, 116 (9), 2001-2025. Retrieved from Science Direct Database.
Packard, R., & Ham, L. (1994). Seminars in Neurology, 14(1), 74-83.
Rattok, J., & Ross, B. (1994). Cognitive Rehabilitation. Inj. Silver, S. Yudofsky, R * Hales (Eds.), The Neuropsychiatry Of Traumatic Brain Injury (pp 703-729), Washington D.C.: American Psychiatric Press.
Salerno, J. (1997). Neurofeedback in closed head injury: A multiple case design study.
Association of Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, San Diego CA.
Sweeney, J. E. (1992). The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 6(4), 443-457.
Tansey, M. A. (1994). 14 Hz EEG neurofeedback as a treatment for cerebellar atrophy. Society for the Study of Neuronal Regulation, Las Vegas, NV.
Thatcher, R. W. (Jan. 2000). EEG operant conditioning (biofeedback) and traumatic brain injury. Clinical Electroencephalography, 31(1), 38-44.
Thatcher, R., Walker, R., Gerson, I., Geisler, F. (1989). EEG: discriminant analysis of mild head trauma. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 73, 94-106.
Thatcher, R., Cantor, D., McCalaster, R., Geisler, F., & Krause, P. (1991). Comprehensive predictions of outcome in closed head injured patients: the development of prognostic equations. Annals of New York Academy of Sciences, 620, 82-101.
Thornton, K. E., & Carmody, D. P. (Jun. 2008). Applied Psychophysiology And Biofeedback, 33(2), 101-124. Retrieved from Medline Database.
Wilson, J. L. (2009). Return the Baseline: Psychophysiological Treatment of Postconcussive Symptoms in combat-injured soldiers With Mild Traumatic Brain Injury and Comorbid Post Traumatic Stress Disorder. Biofeedback, 37(4), 132-136.